LNG technology

Future LNG plants would be "all aero-derivative" driven or "all electric" driven. Practical notes and latest developments on LNG refrigeration compressor train design, driver selection and optimization are discussed. Useful notes and new technologies on "all electric" solution and associated power plant are also described. 

Torsional analysis

A comprehensive torsional analysis should be carried out for a complex compressor string. Various modes of torsional vibrations should be extracted and analyzed. Complicated combinations of effects in various steady state and transient operating cases should be considered. Complete practical notes and latest achievements on torsional design, train arrangement, component selection, coupling sizing and vibration studies are described. 

condition monitoring

Advanced condition monitoring methods have been used to operate rotating machines reliably and efficiently. Practical notes on availability improvement plans, condition monitoring techniques, predictive maintenance methods, trouble-shooting techniques and smart operation are discussed in the article. 

sealed compressor

The state-of-the-art compressor for offshore and subsea compression is hermetically sealed direct driven centrifugal unit using magnetic bearing without seal or oil auxiliary systems. This is a simple and small footprint machine with maintenance intervals more than five years.

gas reinjection


coupling gear


Compressors, drivers and gear units are usually designed and fabricated by different manufacturers. Generally they are selected from pre-designed and pre-engineered models. Their dimensions are fixed and proper supports are required to keep them in same train centre-line.

Shop test compressors


Centrifugal compressor purchasers and end-users realize the value and payback of accurate and proper shop performance test and shop mechanical run test. Shop test is a necessary step for centrifugal compressor future reliability and trouble free operation. ASME-PTC-10 type 1 performance test should be done wherever possible. Otherwise arrangement and details of ASME-PTC-10 type 2 performance test, as close to specified operating condition as possible, should be fixed before machine order. Three case studies are discussed.

offshore LNG



Liquefaction of natural gas to LNG in floating module is the only available option for remote offshore gas reservoirs. Aero-derivative gas turbine driven centrifugal compressors -- because of compact, light-weight, simple and reliable design -- are the best and optimum selection for offshore LNG units. Presented concepts and details in this article allow substantial reduction in total cost of ownership, better production flexibility and reliability of offshore refrigeration centrifugal compressor trains.

Brayton backing cycle to increase efficiency by half

An externally heated Brayton cycle turbine might be used to generate power from heat recovered from the exhaust of a conventional internally fired Brayton gas turbine. However the Brayton turbine is very sensitive to ambient conditions and to the turbine inlet temperature, which in this application is dependent on the exhaust temperature of the primary turbine. These factors limit its use as a backing device, and this article received little support.

Surge in practice

The operating range of centrifugal or axial compressors is limited by an instability range commonly called 'Surge' which occurs during low flow or high head conditions and can result in extensive damage. In compressor surge, the energy of flow reversal is accompanied by a loud explosive noise and excessive vibration. Resulting flow reversal and pressure pulsation from surge can cause extensive damage to the compressor system through induced forces such as thrust reversal, radial and axial excitation of the rotor, etc. 


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